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作者: BEETHOVEN   ZT Many oligarchs during Putin's time/普京时期俄罗斯寡头…… 2017-06-16 04:33:11  [点击:475]
Russian oligarch

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A Russian oligarch (see the related term "New Russians") are wealthy businessmen of the former Soviet republics who rapidly accumulated wealth during the era of Russian privatization in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the 1990s. The failing Soviet state left the ownership of state assets contested, which allowed for informal deals with former USSR officials (mostly in Russia and Ukraine) as a means to acquire state property. Harvard medieval historian Edward L. Keenan has drawn a comparison between the current Russian system of oligarchs and the system of powerful Boyars which emerged in late-Medieval Muscovy.[1]
The Russian oligarchs are business entrepreneurs who emerged under Mikhail Gorbachev (General Secretary 1985-1991) during his period of market liberalization.[citation needed]
Contents [hide]
1 Yeltsinian oligarchs
2 Oligarchs during Putin's presidency
2.1 Oligarchs in London
2.2 2008 global recession and credit crisis
3 The Russian oligarch as an archetype
4 See also
5 References
6 Further reading
Yeltsinian oligarchs[edit]
By the end of the Soviet era in 1991 and during Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika, many Russian businessmen imported or smuggled goods such as personal computers and jeans into the country and sold them, often on the black market, for a hefty profit.

Anatoly Chubais, the man most credited with the Yeltsin-era privatization that led to the growth of the oligarchs[2]
During the 1990s, once Boris Yeltsin (President of Russia from 1991) took office, the oligarchs emerged as well-connected entrepreneurs who started from nearly nothing and became rich through participation in the market via connections to the corrupt, but elected, government of Russia during the state's transition to a market-based economy. The so-called voucher-privatization program enabled a handful of young men to become billionaires, specifically by arbitraging the vast difference between old domestic prices for Russian commodities (e.g. gas, oil) and the prices prevailing on the world market. Because they stashed billions of dollars in private Swiss bank accounts rather than investing in the Russian economy, they were dubbed[by whom?] "kleptocrats".[3] These oligarchs became extremely unpopular with the Russian public, and are commonly thought[by whom?] of as the cause of much of the turmoil that plagued the country following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Guardian described the oligarchs as "about as popular with your average Russian as a man idly burning bundles of £50s outside an orphanage".[4][5]
Post-Soviet business oligarchs include relatives or close associates of government officials, even government officials themselves, as well as criminal bosses who achieved vast wealth by acquiring state assets very cheaply (or for free) during the privatization process controlled by the Yeltsin government of 1991-1999.[citation needed] Specific accusations of corruption are often leveled[by whom?] at Anatoly Chubais and Yegor Gaidar, two of the "Young Reformers" chiefly responsible for Russian privatization in the early 1990s.[citation needed] According to David Satter, author of Darkness at Dawn, "what drove the process was not the determination to create a system based on universal values but rather the will to introduce a system of private ownership, which, in the absence of law, opened the way for the criminal pursuit of money and power".[citation needed] In some cases, outright criminal groups - in order to avoid attention - assign front-men to serve as executives and/or "legal" owners of the companies they control.
Although the majority of oligarchs were not formally connected with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, there are allegations[by whom?] that they were promoted (at least initially) by the communist apparatchiks, with strong connections to Soviet power structures and access to the monetary funds of the Communist Party. Official Russian media usually depict oligarchs as the enemies of "communist forces". The latter is a stereotype that describes political power that wants to restore Soviet-style communism in Russia.
During Yeltsin's presidency (1991-1999) oligarchs became increasingly influential in Russian politics; they played a significant role in financing the re-election of Yeltsin in 1996. With insider information about financial decisions of the government, oligarchs could easily increase their wealth even further. The 1998 Russian financial crisis hit some of the oligarchs hard, however, and those whose holdings were still based mainly on banking lost much of their fortunes.
The most influential and exposed oligarchs from the Yeltsin era include Boris Berezovsky, Mikhail Fridman, Vladimir Gusinsky, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Vladimir Potanin, Alexander Smolensky, Pyotr Aven, Vladimir Vinogradov and Vitaly Malkin.[6][7][8] They formed what became known as Semibankirschina (or seven bankers), a small group of business moguls with a great influence on Boris Yeltsin and his political environment. Together they controlled from 50% to 70% of all Russian finances between 1996 and 2000.
Potanin, Malkin and Fridman are the only ones on the list to have retained their influence in the Putin era (1999- ). Khodorkovsky, Berezovsky and Gusinsky "have been purged by the Kremlin", according to The Guardian.[9]
Oligarchs during Putin's presidency[edit]
The most famous oligarchs of the Putin era include Roman Abramovich, Alexander Abramov, Oleg Deripaska, Mikhail Fridman, Mikhail Prokhorov, Alisher Usmanov, German Khan, Viktor Vekselberg, Leonid Mikhelson, Vagit Alekperov, Pyotr Aven, and still Vladimir Potanin and Vitaly Malkin.
Between 2000 and 2004, Putin apparently engaged in a power-struggle with some oligarchs, reaching a "grand bargain" with them. This bargain allowed the oligarchs to maintain their powers, in exchange for their explicit support of – and alignment with – Putin's government.[10][11]
Many more business people have become oligarchs during Putin's time in power, and often due to personal relations with Putin, such as the rector of the institute where Putin obtained a degree in 1996, Vladimir Litvinenko,[12] and Putin's childhood judo-teacher Arkady Rotenberg.[13] However, other analysts[which?] argue that the oligarchic structure has remained intact under Putin, with Putin devoting much of his time to mediating power-disputes between rival oligarchs.[1]
During Putin's presidency, a number of oligarchs came under fire for various illegal activities, particularly tax evasion in the businesses they acquired. However, it is widely speculated and believed[by whom?] that the charges were also politically motivated, as these tycoons have fallen out of favour with the Kremlin. Vladimir Gusinsky (MediaMost) and Boris Berezovsky both avoided legal proceedings by leaving Russia, and the most prominent, Mikhail Khodorkovsky (of Yukos oil), was arrested in October 2003 and sentenced to 9 years, which was subsequently extended to 14 years. (Putin, however, pardoned him, and he was released on 20 December 2013.[14])
The term 'oligarch' has also been applied[by whom?] to technology investors such as Yuri Milner, although without involvement in Russian politics.[15]
Defenders of the out-of-favor oligarchs (often associated with Chubais's party—the Union of Right Forces) argue that the companies they acquired were not highly valued at the time because they still ran on Soviet principles, with non-existent stock-control, huge payrolls, no financial reporting and scant regard for profit. They turned the businesses—often vast—around and made them deliver value for shareholders. They obtain little sympathy from the Russian public, though, due to resentment over the economic disparity they represent.
In 2004, Forbes listed 36 billionaires of Russian citizenship, with an interesting note: "this list includes businessmen of Russian citizenship who acquired the major share of their wealth privately, while not holding a governmental position". In 2005, the number of billionaires dropped to 30, mostly because of the Yukos case, with Khodorkovsky dropping from #1 (US$15.2 billion) to #21 (US$2.0 billion).
Billionaire, philanthropist, art patron and former KGB agent Alexander Lebedev has criticized the oligarchs, saying "I think material wealth for them is a highly emotional and spiritual thing. They spend a lot of money on their own personal consumption." Lebedev has also described them as a bunch of uncultured ignoramuses, saying "They don't read books. They don't have time. They don't go to [art] exhibitions. They think the only way to impress anyone is to buy a yacht." He also notes that the oligarchs have no interest in social injustice.[16]
Oligarchs in London[edit]
A significant number of Russian oligarchs have bought homes in upscale sections of London in the United Kingdom, which has been dubbed[by whom?] "Moscow on Thames".[17] Some, like Len Blavatnik, Eugene Shvidler, Alexander Knaster, Konstantin Kagalovsky and Abram Reznikov, are expatriates, having taken permanent residency in London. This community has led to journalists calling the city "Londongrad". Most own homes in both countries as well as property and have acquired controlling interests in major European companies. They commute on a regular basis between the EU and Russia; in many cases their families reside in London, with their children attending school there. In 2007 Abram Reznikov bought one of Spain's mega recycling companies, Alamak Espana Trade SL, while Roman Abramovich bought the English football club, Chelsea F.C., in 2003, and has spent record amounts on players' salaries.[18]
In 2013 expatriate oligarch Leonard Blavatnik's refurbished home was possibly the most expensive house in London (per sq ft.)[19]
The billionaire Moscow oligarch Mikhail Fridman (Russia's second richest man as of 2016) is currently restoring Athlone House in London, to be one of his primary residences.[20] The house will be worth £130 million when restored.[21]
2008 global recession and credit crisis[edit]
According to the financial news-agency Bloomberg L.P., Russia's wealthiest 25 individuals have collectively lost US$230 billion (£146 billion) since July 2008.[citation needed] The fall in the oligarchs' wealth relates closely to the meltdown in Russia's stock market, as the RTS Index has lost 71% of its value due to the capital flight after the Russia/Georgia conflict of August 2008.[22][need quotation to verify]
Billionaires in Russia and Ukraine have been particularly hard-hit by lenders seeking repayment on balloon loans in order to shore up their own balance sheets. Many oligarchs took out generous loans from Russian banks, bought shares, and then took out more loans from western banks against the value of these shares.[16][23] One of the first to get hit by the global downturn was Oleg Deripaska, Russia's richest man at the time, who had a net worth of US$28 billion in March 2008. As Deripaska borrowed money from western banks using shares in his companies as collateral, the collapse in share price forced him to sell holdings to satisfy the margin calls.[16][23]
The Russian oligarch as an archetype[edit]
The wealth and political power of Donald Trump as a the president of the United States (presidency of the United States) in 2016 drew comparisons with Russian oligarchs.[24][25]
See also[edit]
Privatization in Russia
Ukrainian oligarchs
Business magnate
Robber baron (industrialist)
Russian mafia
Political groups under Vladimir Putin's presidency
2014 Russian financial crisis
^ Jump up to: a b "Russia's Oligarchy, Alive and Well", New York Times, December 30, 2013.[dead link]
Jump up ^ Profile: Anatoly Chubais,” BBC News, March 17,2005
Jump up ^ Johanna Granville, "The Russian Kleptocracy and Rise of Organized Crime." Demokratizatsiya (summer 2003), pp. 448-457.
Jump up ^ Profile: Boris Berezovsky BBC Retrieved on April 28, 2008
Jump up ^ What a carve-up! The Guardian Retrieved on April 28, 2008
Jump up ^ http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/oligarchs.htm
Jump up ^ British Paper Names Banking Clique at The Moscow Times, November 5, 1996 (archived)
Jump up ^ Dmitry Butrin. The Results of 10 Years of Capitalism. Kommersant newspaper, March 5, 2002 (in Russian)
Jump up ^ Billionaires boom as Putin puts oligarchs at N2 in global rich list The Guardian, 19 Feb 2008
Jump up ^ Putin: Russia's Choice. Richard Sakwa, (Routledge, 2008) pp 143-150
Jump up ^ Playing Russian Roulette: Putin in search of good governance, by Andre Mommen, in Good Governance in the Era of Global Neoliberalism: Conflict and Depolitisation in Latin America, Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa, by Jolle Demmers, Alex E. Fernández Jilberto, Barbara Hogenboom (Routledge, 2004)
Jump up ^ "The fabulous riches of Putin's inner circle". The Bureau Investigates. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
Jump up ^ Oligarchology by Alex Yablon, New York Magazine, Mar 31, 2013
Jump up ^ "Hague court awards $50 bn compensation to Yukos shareholders". Russia Herald. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
Jump up ^ Wired Magazine: "How Russian Tycoon Yuri Milner Bought His Way Into Silicon Valley" by Michael Wolff October 21, 2011
^ Jump up to: a b c Harding, Luke (October 25, 2008). "Twilight of the oligarchs". The Guardian. London. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
Jump up ^ According to British journalist Nick Watt, reporting for ABC's Nightline. (broadcast of June 1, 2007)
Jump up ^ "Over there: American and other foreign owners are revolutionizing British football", Boston Globe, May 25, 2007
Jump up ^ Britain's second richest man refurbishes his £200m home: Russian-born tycoon orders 'mind-boggling' revamp of London mansion with 13 bedrooms, pool and now a multi-storey car park in the basement, by Leon Watson, 29 April 2013, Daily Mail
Jump up ^ New Athlone House owner: ‘I want to restore it to its former glory’ 11:21 30 June 2016 Anna Behrmann, Ham and High
Jump up ^ Billionaire's plans for £65 million derelict mansion approved By Emma Woollacott Sep 15, 2016
Jump up ^ Thomas Jr., Landon (September 5, 2008). "Russia's Oligarchs May Face a Georgian Chill". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
^ Jump up to: a b "Margin Calls Ignite Billionaire Fire Sale". Archived from the original on 2008-10-26.
Jump up ^ Applebaum, Anne (2016-08-19). "The secret to Trump: He's really a Russian oligarch". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-02-15. The real problem with Trump isn't that he is sympathetic to Russian oligarchs, it's that he is a Russian oligarch, albeit one who happens to be American. [...] By this, I don’t mean that Trump eats caviar or hangs out in Moscow nightclubs, although for all I know he's done both of those things. He is, rather, an oligarch in the Russian style — a rich man who aspires to combine business with politics and has an entirely cynical and instrumental attitude toward both. [...] Trump also has the Russian oligarch aesthetic: The gilt fixtures of his Trump Tower apartment rival those in the palatial "cottages" that have been built in the suburbs of Moscow. [...] He isn't running a campaign designed to help his party or his country, or even to push a coherent set of ideas. He’s running a campaign for the same reasons a Russian oligarch would: to build a brand, to stoke an ego, to make money.
Jump up ^ Mayer, Jane (2016-10-03). "Donald Trump, American Oligarch". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 2017-02-15. Now, with the Times reporting that congressionally crafted loopholes for real-estate magnates could have enabled Trump to legally evade all income taxes for eighteen years, while earning as much as fifty million dollars a year, we have a perfect example of how oligarchic interests have made inroads in the United States. [...] For decades, Trump has been part of the private sector that has used its wealth and power to carve out tax loopholes for its own self-interest. This may be acceptable in Russia, and other oligarchic parts of the world, but whether it's O.K. in America, too, is now on the ballot next month.
Further reading[edit]
The Russian Oligarchs of the 1990s
Bowen, Andrew. "Why London Is So Critical To Putin's Russia." The Interpreter. 20 March 2014
David E. Hoffman, The Oligarchs: Wealth and Power in the new Russia, Perseus Book Group, New York, 2002
Mark Hollingsworth and Stewart Lansley, Londongrad; From London with cash: The inside story of the oligarchs, London, 2009
Oligarchology Mar 31, 2013 New York (magazin)




一个俄罗斯寡头(请参阅相关的术语“ 新俄罗斯人 ”)是富有商人的的前苏联加盟共和国的时代,谁迅速积累财富的俄罗斯私有化中的余波苏联解体 20世纪90年代。在没有 苏联的状态留有争议的国有资产,其允许的所有权非正式的交易与前苏联官员(主要在俄罗斯和乌克兰以获取国有资产的一种手段)。哈佛中世纪历史学家爱德华L. 基南已经引起寡头俄国目前的体制和强大的系统之间的比较博亚尔斯其出现在晚中世纪番鸭。[1]

俄罗斯寡头是商业 企业家谁下出现米克哈尔·戈尔巴乔夫(秘书长在他的1985 - 1991年期间),市场自由化。[ 需要引用 ]


[ 隐藏 ]




叶利钦寡头[ 编辑]



20世纪90年代,一旦叶利钦(叶利钦从1991年起任俄罗斯总统)就任,这个寡头就成了一个连贯的企业家,他们从几乎没有任何东西开始,通过与腐败而当选的俄罗斯政府的关系参与市场而变得富有在国家向市场经济转型期间。所谓的凭证私有化计划使少数年轻人成为亿万富豪,特别是通过套利俄罗斯大宗商品(如天然气和石油)的旧国内价格与世界市场价格之间的巨大差异。因为他们在瑞士的私人银行帐户里攒了数十亿美元, 而不是投资俄罗斯的经济,他们被称为[ 由谁?] “ kleptocrats ”。[3]这些寡头成了俄罗斯民众极其不受欢迎,被普遍认为[ 由谁?]作为在1991年苏联解体之后困扰该国的大量动乱的原因。卫报将寡头描述为“与普通俄罗斯人一样受欢迎,因为人们在孤儿院外面兜售50英镑的捆绑包”。[4] [5] 与通常认为[ 由谁?]作为在1991年苏联解体之后困扰该国的大量动乱的原因。卫报将寡头描述为“与普通俄罗斯人一样受欢迎,因为在孤儿院外孤身一人地焚烧了50镑的捆绑”。[4] [5] 与通常认为[ 由谁?]作为在1991年苏联解体之后困扰该国的大量动乱的原因。卫报将寡头描述为“与普通俄罗斯人一样受欢迎,因为在孤儿院外孤身一人地焚烧了50镑的捆绑”。[4] [5]

苏联解体后的商业寡头包括亲属或政府官员的亲密伙伴,甚至是政府官员自己,以及犯罪的老板谁通过在收购国有资产非常便宜(或免费)获得巨额财富的私有化进程由控制叶利钦 1991年政府-1999。[ 需要引用 ]腐败的具体指控通常是平等的[ 由谁?]在Anatoly Chubais和Yegor Gaidar,二十年代初主要负责俄罗斯私有化的“年轻改革家” 。[ 来源请求 ]据戴维·萨特的作者,在黎明的黑暗 “,是什么驱使这个过程是不是基于创建系统的决心普世价值引入私人所有权的系统,而是将它,在没有法律为追求金钱和权力开辟道路“。[ 来源请求 ]在某些情况下,直接犯罪集团-为了避免注意力-分配前男性担任高管和/或其所控制的公司的“合法”的业主。

虽然大多数寡头与苏联共产党没有正式联系,但有指控[ 由谁?],他们得到晋升(至少在初期)由共产党apparatchiks,具有很强的连接苏维埃政权结构和访问共产党的货币资金。俄罗斯官方媒体通常将寡头作为“共产主义力量”的敌人。后者是一种刻板印象,描述了希望在俄罗斯恢复苏联式共产主义的政治权力。

在叶利钦总统期间(1991 - 1999年),寡头在俄罗斯政治中日益受到影响; 他们在1996年对叶利钦连任的资助方面发挥了重要作用。与内幕信息有关政府的金融决策,寡头们可以很容易进一步增加他们的财富。然而,1998年俄罗斯的金融危机打击了一些寡头,而持有的仍然主要依靠银行的人,失去了大部分的财富。

从叶利钦时代最具影响力和曝光包括寡头鲍里斯·别列佐夫斯基,米克哈尔·弗赖德曼,弗拉基米尔·古辛斯基,米克哈尔·霍多尔科夫斯基,弗拉基米尔·波塔宁,亚历山大·斯莫伦斯基,皮特勒·埃文,弗拉基米尔·维诺格拉多夫和维塔利·马金。[6] [7] [8]他们形成了被称为Semibankirschina(或七个银行家)的一群小企业大亨,对叶利钦的政治环境有很大的影响。他们一起在一九九六至二零零零年间控制了俄罗斯所有财政的50%至70%。

波坦丁,马尔金和弗里德曼是列表中唯一保留在普京时代(1999-)的影响力的人。据卫报说,霍多尔科夫斯基,贝列佐夫斯基和古辛斯基“被克里姆林宫清除” 。[9]

普京的总统任期内的寡头[ 编辑]


2000年至2004年,普京显然与一些寡头进行电力斗争,与他们达成“大谈判”。这个议价让寡头能维持自己的权力,以换取对普京政府的明确支持,并与普京政府保持一致。[10] [11]

还有更多的商务人士在普京的时间在电源已经成为寡头,而且往往由于与普京的个人关系,例如当普京于1996年获得学位研究所的校长弗拉基米尔·利特维年科,[12]和普京的童年柔道老师阿尔卡季罗滕堡。[13]然而,其他分析[ 哪个?]认为,普京的寡头结构一直保持不变,普京投入大量时间来调解敌对寡头之间的权力争端。[1]

在普京担任总统职务期间,一些寡头劫持各种非法活动,特别是在他们所获得的企业中逃税。然而,这是广泛的猜测和相信[ 谁由谁?]这些指控也是政治动机的,因为这些巨人已经失去了对克里姆林宫的青睐。弗拉基米尔·古辛斯基(MediaMost)和鲍里斯·比雷佐夫斯基(Boris Berezovsky)均避免了离开俄罗斯的法律诉讼,最突出的是米科尔·霍多尔科夫斯基(尤科斯 油),于2003年10月被捕,被判处9年徒刑,后来延长至14年。(普京,赦免他,并于2013年12月20日被释放。

“寡头”一词也被应用了[ 由谁?]给技术投资者尤里·米尔纳,虽然没有参与俄罗斯的政治。[15]

失败的寡头的维权者(通常与Chubais的党 - 联盟权力联盟)辩称,他们获得的公司当时没有高度重视,因为他们仍然运行在苏联的原则,不存在的股票控制,巨额工资,财务报告和利润少见。他们改变了业务 - 通常是巨大的,使他们为股东带来价值。不过,他们对俄罗斯公众的经济差距表示不满,他们几乎没有同情。



伦敦的寡妇[ 编辑]

很多俄罗斯寡头在英国的伦敦高档地区买了房屋,这些房子被称为[ 由谁?] “泰晤士河上的莫斯科”。[17]有些人,像伦·布拉瓦尼克,尤金·什维德勒,亚历山大·纳斯特,康斯坦丁·卡加勒沃斯基和阿布勒姆·雷斯尼科弗都是外籍人士,在采取永久居留在伦敦。这个社区导致记者打电话给“伦敦大学”城市。两国大多数自有房屋和财产,并已获得欧洲主要公司的控股权益。他们定期在欧盟和俄罗斯之间上下班; 在很多情况下,他们的家人住在伦敦,孩子们在那里上学。2007年,亚伯兰·雷兹尼科夫(Abram Reznikov)购买了西班牙的超大型回收公司Alamak Espana Trade SL,而阿布拉莫维奇则于2003年购买了英格兰足球俱乐部切尔西足球俱乐部,并在球员的薪水中记录了数额。[18]


亿万富翁莫斯科寡头米哈伊尔·弗里德曼(Mikhail Fridman)(俄罗斯是2016年第二大富豪)目前正在伦敦恢复阿斯隆之家,成为他的主要住宅之一。[20]恢复时,这座房子将价值1.3亿英镑。[21]

2008年全球经济衰退与信贷危机[ 编辑]

据财经新闻机构彭博资讯,俄罗斯最富有的25个人已经集体失去了US $ 230十亿(146十亿£)自2008年7月[ 来源请求 ]在寡头们的财富的下降密切相关的危机在俄罗斯的股市,因为RTS指数由于2008年8月俄罗斯/格鲁吉亚冲突后的资本外逃而损失了71%的价值。[22] [ 需要报价确认 ]

俄罗斯和乌克兰的亿万富翁对贷款人寻求偿还气球贷款特别受到打击,以支撑自己的资产负债表。许多寡头从俄罗斯银行掏出大笔贷款,购买股票,然后从西方银行取得更多的这些股票的价值。[16] [23]首先受到全球经济衰退影响的人之一是俄罗斯当时最富有的人奥列格·德里帕斯卡(Oleg Deripaska),2008年3月的净资产为280亿美元。由于德里帕斯卡借用西班牙银行的资金在他的公司作为抵押品,股价的崩溃迫使他出售持有以满足保证金要求。[16] [23]

俄罗斯寡头作为原型[ 编辑]

唐纳德·特朗普作为美国总统(美国总统)在2016年的财富和政治权力与俄罗斯寡头比较。[24] [25]

另见[ 编辑]


参考文献[ 编辑]

^ 跳到:a b “俄罗斯的寡头,活着和好”,纽约时报,2013年12月30日。[ dead link ]
跳起来^ 简介:Anatoly Chubais,“BBC新闻,2005年3月17日
跳起来^ Johanna Granville,“有组织犯罪的俄罗斯杀人与崛起”。Demokratizatsiya(2003年夏季),第448-457页。
跳高^ 简介:鲍里斯Berezovsky BBC检索于2008年4月28日
跳起来^ 什么雕刻! 监护人于2008年4月28日检索
跳起来^ http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/oligarchs.htm
跳高^ 英国文献名称银行集团在莫斯科时报,1996年11月5日(存档)
跳起来^ Dmitry Butrin 资本主义10年的成果。商人报,二零零二年三月五日(俄文)
跳高^ 亿万富翁,普京将寡头置于全球富豪榜中的N2“卫报”,2008年2月19日
跳起来^ 普京:俄罗斯的选择。理查德·萨瓦(Richard Sakwa)(Routledge,2008)第143-150页
跳起来^ 玩俄罗斯轮盘赌:普京在搜索励精图治,由安德烈·莫门,在善治全球的新自由主义的时代:在拉丁美洲,东欧,亚洲和非洲的冲突与Depolitisation,通过Jolle Demmers,亚历克斯·E. FernándezJilberto,Barbara Hogenboom(Routledge,2004)
跳起来^ “普京内心的丰富财富”。调查局。取回2012年6月7日。
跳起来^ Oligarchology由亚历克斯·亚布隆,纽约杂志,2013年3月31日
跳起来^ “海牙法院向Yukos股东赔偿50亿美元的赔偿”。俄罗斯先驱报。检索2014年7月29日。
跳起来^ 连线杂志:“俄罗斯大亨尤里米尔纳如何买他的方式入硅谷”由迈克尔·沃尔夫2011年10月21日
^ 跳到:a b c Harding,Luke(2008年10月25日)。“寡头暮光之城”。监护人。伦敦。检索于 2010年4月1日。
跳起来^ 据英国记者尼克·瓦特(Nick Watt)报道,ABC的夜线报道。(2007年6月1日播出)
跳起来^ “那边:美国和其他外国业主革命性英国足球”波士顿环球报,2007年5月25日,
跳起来^ 英国第二富豪翻新了他的二千万英镑的家园:俄罗斯出生的大亨订购了伦敦大厦的令人难以置信的改造,拥有13间卧室,泳池,现在是地下室的多层停车场,4月29日,Leon Watson 2013年,每日邮报
跳起来^ 新阿斯隆屋主:'我想恢复它以前的荣耀'11:21 2016年6月30日Anna Behrmann,火腿和高
跳高^ 亿万富翁计划为6500万英镑的遗弃豪宅批准由Emma Woollacott 2016年9月15日
升起^ 托马斯小姐,兰登(2008年9月5日)。“俄罗斯的寡妇可能会面对格鲁吉亚的寒意”。纽约时报。检索于 2010年4月1日。
^ 跳到:a b “保证金通知Ignite亿万富翁消防销售”。从2008-10-26 原始归档。
跳起来^ Applebaum,安妮(2016-08-19)。“特朗普的秘密:他真的是俄罗斯寡头”。华盛顿邮报。ISSN 0190-8286 。检索2017-02-15。特朗普的真正问题不在于他同情俄罗斯的寡头,就是他是一个俄罗斯的寡头,尽管是一个恰好是美国人的寡头。[...]这样,我不是说特朗普在莫斯科的夜总会里吃鱼子酱或者挂起来,尽管我知道他都做了这两件事情。相反,他是俄罗斯风格的寡头,一个渴望将商业与政治结合起来的富有的人,对两者都是一种愤世嫉俗和乐观的态度。[...]特朗普也有俄罗斯寡头美学:他的特朗普塔公寓的镀金装置与那些在莫斯科郊区建成的“别墅”相媲美。[...]他没有进行旨在帮助他的党或国家的运动,甚至推出一套连贯一致的想法。他正在进行一场运动,原因与俄罗斯寡头同样的原因:建立一个品牌,激起自我,赚钱。
跳起来^ Mayer,Jane(2016-10-03)。“唐纳德·特朗普,美国寡妇”。纽约人。ISSN 0028-792X 。检索2017-02-15。现在,随着“泰晤士报”报道说,国会制定的房地产巨头漏洞可能使特朗普在法律上逃避所有的所得税十八年,而每年赚取五千万美元,我们也是一个很好的例子,说明寡头利益如何在美国进驻。[...]几十年来,特朗普一直是私营部门的一部分,利用其财富和权力为自己的利益挖掘税收漏洞。这在俄罗斯和世界其他寡头部分可能是可以接受的,但是是否可行

进一步阅读[ 编辑]

鲍恩,安德鲁。“ 为什么伦敦对普京的俄罗斯这么关键 ”。口译员 2014年3月20日
大卫·霍夫曼(David E. Hoffman),新俄罗斯的寡妇:财富与权力,2002年纽约的Perseus书集
Mark Hollingsworth和Stewart Lansley,Londongrad; 从伦敦与现金:寡头的内部故事,伦敦,2009年
Oligarchology 2013年3月31日纽约(杂志)


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